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Information About Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

  • What is Diabetes Mellitus?

  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels because the body does not produce enough insulin or deficiency of insulin.

    Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans which located in the pancreas, controls the amount of sugar in the blood and it is needed to turn sugar and to process carbohydrates, fat, and protein into energy. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level.

    The World Health Organization recognizes two idiopathic forms types of diabetes mellitus; type 1 {Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes} and type 2 {Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes}. Diabetes can occur temporarily during pregnancy, these kind of diabetes known as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).

    The most easily to recognized symptoms of diabetes mellitus are secondary to hyperglycemia (blood glucose level high than normal), glycosuria (increased urinary frequency and volume), and ketoacidosis (KA). Diabetes Mellitus can cause many complications, include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure, retinal damage (which can lead to blindness), nerve damage (of several kinds), and microvascular damage, which may cause impotence and poor healing.

    The more tightly a person with diabetes is able to control the levels of sugar in the blood, the less likely it is that these complications will develop or become worse. Commonly, Diabetes mellitus cases are cause by Genetic issues, Environmental factors, Chemical, and Other (Congenital absence of the pancreas, Pancreatectomy, Wolfram syndrome, Chromosomal disorders).
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    Signs and Symptoms Diabetes Mellitus

    The early symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are related to the direct effects of high amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood (glucose levels), When the blood glugcose level rises above 160 to 180 mg/dL and glucose passes into the urine.

    Patients with Diabetes Mellitus has signs and symptoms include :
  • Polyuria (Passage of large volumes of urine)

  • Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)

  • Polyphagia (Extreme hunger/eating to much)

  • Glycosuria (Frequent urination)

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • Neuropathy & Nephropathy (Tingling or numbness in the hands/feet)

  • Feeling very tired/weakness much of the time

  • Sudden vision changes (blurred vision)

  • cuts and bruises that are slow to heal

  • More infections than usual

  • Extremely elevated glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma.

  • Some of people may be they are only experience a few symptoms that are listed above. Diabetics symptoms may develop quite rapidly time to time (weeks or months), especially in the children are who diagnosed as Diabetes type 1. Onset of type 1 diabetes is most common in children and young adults, which called Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM] or Juvenile-onset diabetes.

    Most of people with type 2 diabetes are they do not experience any symptoms and therefore do not know they have the disease. They are suffering from both insulin resistance and decreased insulin production.
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    Type of Diabetes Mellitus

    Diabetes mellitus is classified two idiopathic forms types of diabetes, called type 1 {Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM] or juvenile-onset diabetes} and type 2 {Non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] or adult-onset diabetes}. Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Various sources have defined "type 3 diabetes" as, among others and gestational diabetes.

    To determine whether a patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes is important because patients with type 1 diabetes are dependent on a continuous source of exogenous insulin and carbohydrate for survival. Diabetes type 1 may also develop in older adults and is increasingly being recognized through the measurement of islet–glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. Patients with type 2 diabetes may not need any treatment for hyperglycemia during periods of fasting or decreased oral intake.

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. A patient who has had diabetes since childhood, who has always been dependent on insulin, or who has a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) almost certainly has type 1 diabetes. People with the new-onset adult (usually before 30 years of age) form of type 1 diabetes mellitus called latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA).

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus currently only can be treated with insulin therapy and this treatment must be continued indefinitely. Family history, diet, and environmental factors are risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Those people who has diagnosed as type 1 diabetes, They need to careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using blood testing monitors. Especially the Children who has significant dehydration, persistent vomiting, serious intercurrent illness, require inpatient management and intravenous rehydration.

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Type 2 diabetes has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is much more common and is the type of diabetes that affects most Singaporeans. Type 2 diabetes they have "insulin resistance", in which the cells and tissues of the body are unable to respond to the insulin produced by the pancreas.

    In this cases (Type 2) diabetes which has progressed to require injected insulin, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) some of them also maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) which is a group of several single gene disorders with strong family histories that present as type 2 diabetes before 30 years of age. As the disease progresses the impairment of insulin secretion worsens, and therapeutic replacement of insulin often becomes necessary.
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