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Hyperglycaemia in Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycaemia is a condition in which the blood sugar level higher than normal, more then 180 mg/dl (in US units) or 10mmol/L (in UK units) measured two hours after food. It is generally found in people with diabetes because they did not controlled well their diabetics disease.

Hyperglycaemia over a long period can be result an unconciousness condition. Usually the casualty will drift into this state over a few days. Hyperglycaemia requires urgent treatment in hospital. Hyperglycaemia often only affects people with type 1 diabetes. Hyperglycaemia may develop more slowly in people with type 2 diabetes but can still progress to dehydration, confusion, and coma.

  • Hyperglycaemia is most commonly caused by:

  • - Not enough insulin or missed dosage or insulin "gone off" (poor injection technique)

    - Overeating, especially eating too many carbohydrates which cause of increasing blood sugar level

    - Gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection can interfere with digestion and affect blood glucose stability

    - Mental or emotional stress. Stresses can causing (release) of glucose into the bloodstream and stress hormones can bring about resistance to the action of insulin, both actions contributing to high blood sugar.

    - Infections and illnesses. being ill, suffering major physical trauma or undergoing major surgery, or having an infection, causes the body to produce more of certain hormones which stimulate the liver to make extra glucose. For example a heart attack or kidney disease, can raise blood sugar levels

    - Other tablets or medicines e.g. Cortisone.

  • Signs and symptoms of Hyperglycaemia

  • - Increased need to urinate or passing large volumes of urine
    - Rapid pulse and breathing
    - Feeling constantly thirsty
    - Feeling weak or Tiredness
    - Abdominal pains
    - Warm, dry skin
    - Blurred vision
    - Loss of appetite and weight loss
    - If untreated, drowsiness, then unconsciousness.

  • Treatment for Hyperglycaemia

  • Treatment of Hyperglycaemia involves testing blood glucose levels every 2-4 hours and recording the results, and also check for sugar and ketones in the urine. It is important to drink as much water or low calorie fluids as possible to replace fluids lost through urination. Do not drink fluids that contain sugar.

    Contact the doctor or diabetes nurse educator to get advice from them if blood sugar levels remains high, ketones are present in the urine and the nausea or vomiting happen which cause unable to eat or drink.

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