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Hypoglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition in which the blood sugar in the body drops to an abnormally low level, under 60 mg/dl (in US units) or 3,3 mmol/L (in UK units). Hypoglycemia is associated with diabetics type 1 {Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes} and may occur more frequently as metabolic control approaches normal. Some people have mild hypoglycemia where they occasionally get the shakes when hungry, but are not seriously afflicted.

In the empty stomach, the body will usually produce sugar in the liver to avoid blood sugar levels falling. But this mechanism does not always work perfectly, finally soon the blood sugar coming down under the normal level. More serious hypoglycemia can lead to confusion and even loss of consciousness, If this condition still untreat it will go to level coma which called as "hypoglycemic coma".

  • Causes of Hypoglycemia

  • - Certain medications. Some medicine may used to treat another disease (other than diabetes) can cause hypoglycemia or hide its symptoms. The medicine are aspirin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), Quinine sulfate, Pentamidine (NebuPent and Pentam 300). Another medicine that also can make the blood sugar turn to down level in the long term are beta-blockers such as propranolol (for example, Inderal), nadolol (for example, Corgard), and metoprolol (for example, Lopressor).

    - Over dose of insulin. Taking large dose of insulin also risk for Hypoglycemia, In the pancrease it self if there is tumor (insulinomas) or certain disorders of the pancreas, or some autoimmune diseases can cause too much insulin to be produced event these conditions are rare.

    - Illnesses and other health conditions. Critical illnesses such as kidney, liver or heart failure it will leading to impair of liver function. In very rare cases, nonpancreatic tumors cause hypoglycemia.

    - Other causes such as Pregnancy, Alcoholism, Emotional stress, Thyroid problems. But the most common cases are the diabetics patient late to have their food after taken a diabetic madication.

  • Signs And Symptoms Of Hypoglycemia

  • The body's biochemical response to hypoglycemia usually starts when sugars are in the high/mid 60's level. The first set of symptoms are called neuro-genic (or sympathetic) because they relate to the nervous system's response to hypoglycemia. The person may may experience; nervousness, sweating, intense hunger, trembling, weakness, palpitations, and often have trouble speaking.

    When the Hypoglycemia appear as signs and symptom above and do not getting soon treatment, It will effects to the brain:

    - Confusion (inability to complete routine tasks)
    - Visual disturbances, such as double vision and blurred vision
    - Loss of consciousness and then coma (hypoglycemic coma).

  • Treatment Of Hypoglycemia

  • Different people may develop symptoms of mild, moderate, or severe hypoglycemia at varying blood sugar levels. It doesn't mean that the blood sugar levels listed above are typical, they may not apply to everyone. May be another persons when his blood sugar drops suddenly, He/She may develop symptoms even if his/her blood sugar (glucose) level is in the normal range.

    Some people who know as Hypoglycemia but He/She still in the conscious condition, start to give them regular soda, juice, lifesavers, table sugar, and the like are good options. At least about 10-15 grams of glucose followed by an assessment of symptoms and a blood glucose check if possible (after 10 minutes). If it is do not improving the blood sugar level, start to give another 10-15 grams. This can be repeated up to 3 times.

    The equivalency of 10-15 grams of glucose (approximate servings) are 1-2 teaspoons of sugar or honey, 1/2 cup of regular soda, 5-6 pieces of hard candy, 1 cup of milk, and Glucose gel or tablets (take the amount noted on the package to add up to 15 grams of carbohydrate).

    If the hypoglycemic episode has progressed to the point where the patient cannot or will not take anything by mouth, Emergency 911 (ambulance) should be called immediately. The emergency team they will take an action by giving an injection glucagon via intravenous, Glucagon is a hormone that causes the liver to release glucose in minutes and lasts for about 90 minutes.

    Glucagon for Hypoglycemia

    Many people like the idea of treating hypoglycemia with cake, cookies, and brownies. Somebody with diabetic type 1 or type 2 actually better for them if they now how to inject glucagon, at least in the family members one of them should be learn how to administer glucagon. So, they can ask the doctor to prescribe a glucagon kit for home use if the emergency condition (hypoglycemia) happen at home.

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